Everything You Should Know About Pet Cystotomy & Urethrostomy

Do you know that kidney stones are a common disease among male cats? No worries, advanced treatments can cure this discomforting and painful disease. Here we are going to reveal detailed insights about cystotomy and Urethrostomy. This surgical procedure is mostly performed among male cats. For instance, bladder stones do not flush out on their own, and cystotomy is the best option to remove them. Those cats that face the bladder stones' reoccurrence have to be managed medically by going through the perineal Urethrostomy (PU). This procedure includes the largening or urethra. So, the stones, mucus plugs, and crystals can pass through the urethra and eliminate the chances of re-obstruction. The all-inclusive cost of the cystotomy and Urethrostomy is $2,000.00.

The male cats face the urethra obstruction (urine tube draining from the bladder). For instance, the bladder obstruction results in mucus, crystals, inflammation, and small kidney stones and passes on to the bladder and becomes urinary stones. The inflammatory material and other urinary bladder infections occur due to diet and viral infections. Some other causes reported include scarring, cancer, and trauma. Likewise, the early neutering of the cat does not relate to reducing the size of the urethra. Read on to know more!

Indications and Symptoms: 

The affected cats with Cystotomy & Urethrostomy fall within the age group of 1 to 10 years. Besides, the symptoms and signs can vary among the cats from mild to severe. In addition, the cats will be showing urinary tract discomfort and inflammation, blood in urine, inappropriate urination, straining while urinating, and painful urinating.
All these bouts are resolvable in 5 to 7 days, but they can recur in cats that have 6 to 12 months of age. Besides this, the cats will be completely obstructed, and they will be urinating outside of the litter box and sometimes fail to produce urine. In addition, the cat may start crying due to the discomfort. Plus, the cats will be moving restlessly and eventually lose their appetite. There are several cases where the kittens and cats are found lethargic. On the other side, the complete obstruction can cause the cat's death in 6 days. For instance, those cats facing urethral obstruction will have painful bladder, and the bladder becomes large. The ruptured bladder makes them easily irritated and in discomfort.

Other risk factors evaluated by the experts include the lower urinary tract in cats of 6 to 12 months.

The urinary obstruction is commonly found among the cats evaluated in winter. In addition, bladder inflammation leads to feline urologic syndrome "FUS," but it is common among male cats. The complications of the bladder can be increased with congenital outpouching of the cat's bladder. Unfortunately, it results in chronic inflammation.
Besides this, all the risks mentioned above were found in the cats eating dry food items. Also, the pet cats mostly stay inside. Not only this, the symptoms were found among the cats will be nervous, stressed, aggressive, and fearful. Plus, those cats who were staying in the multi-cat household.


In cats with urinary tract symptoms, inflammation will go through a blood work evaluation to check the kidney's function. Additionally, it is important to determine the evidence of the systematic illnesses. Besides, the urine sample is ideal for evaluating the crystals, and it is best to send for the culturing. Other than that, infections in the bladder are not common in cats (male or female). The recurrent infections are identifiable with x-rays to check the calculi stones and other substances in the gallbladder or kidneys. The veterinarian will be injecting the contrast material in the cat's bladder during the x-ray to check the anatomic reasons for bloody urine and straining, narrowing of the urethra, and check the bladder wall defect.


The urinary obstruction requires emergency surgical treatment. Thus, general anesthesia is crucial for all sick patients to place the catheter and flush the stones into the bladder. Indeed, the bladder is drained to remove the sediments. Likewise, the urinary catheter is placed for some days until the swelling disappears. After removing the catheter, the evaluation of the cat becomes crucial to ensure if they can urinate easily before getting discharged from the hospital. More than that, the veterinarian will be prescribing the pain medication, diet plan to relax the patient from the formation of a crystal, and other drugs to make the cat comfortable.

Furthermore, bladder stones can be flushed out with the process of a cystotomy. It includes the surgical opening of the bladder to remove the stones. The cystotomy is commonly performed in cats with congenital bladder outpouchings. However, in case of the obstruction occurs again. Therefore, thorough work such as cultures, x-rays, and contrast studies of a urethra is the best option to perform before considering the surgery.

If your cat goes through many occurrences that are unable to manage medically, the veterinarian will recommend the perineal urethrotomy or the urethra widening. Besides, this procedure intends to provide the permanent opening of the mucus plugs passage for the small stones and crystals. What's more? The procedure will eliminate the re-obstruction chances.

Some Considerations

There are some potential risks to the gallbladder stone removal procedure, though it is a simple procedure. The complications included in the procedure include the following:

  • Allergic reaction to the anesthesia
  • Remaining obstructions or stones
  • Difficulty in urinating
  • Wound rupture
  • Hemorrhage
  • Reoccurring of the same condition
  • Urine leakage
  • Infection
  • Anesthetic death

There are chances that all stones will not be removed in the surgical procedure, so the surgery extends to Urethrostomy. However, the complications mentioned earlier can emerge in male cats. Also, it is important to check that none of the obstructions remain behind with the assistance of an x-ray.

Outcome and Post-operative Care

It would be best to use the paper litter or pelleted litter after the surgical procedure. The cats will have swelling, and there are high chances of urine leakage. Thus, it is best to place the urinary catheter for three days. Moreover, the Elizabethan collar will be ideal for a cat to wear for at least 14 days. Also, the collar will protect the cat from self-trauma, which is one of the most devastating outcomes of this surgical procedure.

In some male cats, the surgeon will be using absorbable sutures, while sometimes, the surgeon uses non-absorbable sutures that require removal after 14 days. In addition, the cats should be checked from time to time for the right post-operative care and results.

After the surgery, the cats will have swelling and bleeding. The narrowing of the Urethrostomy will traumatize the cat, and there could be urine leakage. There are chances of reoccurrence of the disease. Cat infections occur in cats (ratio 25% of the first year of Urethrostomy. The Urethrostomy does not provide the permanent solution for stone formation and bladder inflammation.

All in all, the prevention of urethral blockage highly depends on the blockage causes. In the most efficient surgical performance, the cats will have low chances of developing urinary obstructions. Likewise, the perineal Urethrostomy does not prevent diseases in the urinary tract in some cat breeds